Burgos is located in the northern-central plateau of the Iberian Peninsula, not far from the border between Castille and Navarre.
The area of Burgos has been populated since ancient times, and attending to archaeological evidence it was already a settlement of certain importance in the Neolithic and the Iron Age. In the I century BC, it was populated by the Turmogos, a celtic people of uncertain origin, who during the Sertorian War were submitted and conquered through several campaigns led by Pompeius Magnus. When the Western Roman Empire fell, Burgos was probably occupied by the barbarian invaders who settled in Iberia.
After being looted by a muslim razzia around 860 AD, Burgos started to gain importance when Alfonso III had the place fortified in order to contain and hamper saracen raids in the region. The town suddenly adquired a high strategic value and began to quickly increase its population and influence. By 932, it was chosen as the capital of the newly independent County of Castille, a status ratified a century later when Castille became a kingdom. Although the capital was moved south to Toledo when that city was conquered by Alfonso VI in 1085, Burgos' growth and prosperity weren't interrupted and it kept its position as one of the most important christian iberian cities through all the Middle Ages.